Tag Archives: science fiction

Writing essays on space opera and pop-culture

Scene from the upcoming science fiction movie Valerian and the City of a Thousand Planets, directed by Luc Besson
Scene from the upcoming science fiction movie Valerian and the City of a Thousand Planets, directed by Luc Besson, adapted from the French comic book by Pierre Christin and Jean-Claude Mézières, and starring Dane DeHaan as Valerian and Cara Delevingne as Laureline. A classic, special effects rich, action adventure space opera, similar to Star Wars, Mass Effect,, and Guardians of the Galaxy

This last one and a half months or so I’ve been writing essays for Omni magazine on scifi movies, especially those with a  space operatic theme, storytelling, mythopoesis, and pop culture, which I’ll be double posting here, along with any additional thoughts I have.

I’ve always been interested in scifi movies for their mythopoetic power, despite the lack of realism and story consistency, and indeed often inferiority next to most print science fiction (or “SF”).  The reason I like movies is because cinema brings so much more to the table: special effects, music, actors. and so on.

Also, even though I write in text, I always think in pictures.  It’s as if I have a cinema playing my own scifi movie in my head.  Hence I always look for inspiration to movies, the visuals, the music, and so on.

I envisage there’ll eventually come a time when any creative person will be able to make a complete movie on their desktop quantum computer (and you’d need a quantum computer because of the rendering and computing needed for movie standard special effects!).  In the meantime, we have to make do with either print stories or TV/movies (with some hybrid media like graphic novels, and new emerging independent movie and CGI film-making)

I’m going to be writing less essays anyway, not because I don’t enjoy writing essays (I do), but because I really need to focus on getting my first novel finished in six months.

Oh, and I still can’t figure put how to do realistic hair in Blender.

incorporating metaphysics in science fiction

Front on view of the Nebuchadnezzar, Morpheus' ship in The Matrix
Front on view of the Nebuchadnezzar, Morpheus’ ship in The Matrix. Called a “hovercraft”, it actually corresponds to the standard space opera trope of the small spaceship with its ragtag crew of rebels. See also the Matrix Wiki page on this ship

Lately been writing essays for Omni.  Working on my latest one on The Matrix and Gnosticism really got me thinking about metaphysics, worldbuilding, and scifi, since The Matrix is probably the most metaphysical movie (and trilogy) I have seen.  That’s not to deny there isn’t metaphysics and Gnosticism in other scifi as well, even the  silliest, e.g. some Marvel Comics and their Guardians of the Galaxy (their version of Star Wars essentially) with concepts like Celestials and Infinity Stones.  But I’m interested in a  more serious approach to metaphysics, and achieving this in a similar way to how Tolkien incorporated pagan nordic (Viking, Beowulf, etc) mythology in Lord of the Rings.  I’m less interested in the Silmarillion because it’s too mythology heavy.  I’m interested in creating an adventure story, a road movie but in outer space, not a mytho-theology.

As I explain in my essay, the Wachowskis failed to incorporate the gestalt of Gnosticism.  They got the paranoia, the underworld, the spirits trapped in matter perfectly.  Essentially, they created a very Philip K Dickian form of Gnosticism.  But they totally left out the transcendent element, the Pleroma, the Aeons or supra-mundane spiritual archetypes.  They also only included half of Philip K Dick’s gnosis; his Black Iron Prison (negative), but not his Palm Tree Garden (positive) (see The Exegesis of Philip K. Dick).

Essentially then, The Matrix Trilogy is a long meditation on the world of what Rudolf Steiner calls Ahriman, the anti-divine power and the god of materialism and mechanism in matter  Interestingly, it’s also a space opera, albeit one set on a post-apocalyptic Earth.  I say this because it features a classic small spaceship, the Nebuchadnezzar (above), directly comparable to the Millennium Falcon of Star Wars, Serenity of Firefly, and Milano of Guardians of the Galaxy,  Even though the story is set on a future, post-apocalyptic Earth, the trope of a grimy ship with its rag-tag team of plucky rebels is identical

My interest however is in a space operatic story arc that incorporates both the lower, ahrimanic and lovecraftian dimensions, the middle imaginal and aetheric dimensions, and the highest, pleromatic and transcendentalist ones.  Stories dwelling on the lower worlds are common, those concerning the higher are rare.  Kubrick’s 2001 A Space Odyssey for example ends with the sort of transcendentalist aspect that one would expect to find, but was lack in, The Matrix Trilogy

The obvious, and easiest, way to incorporate metaphysics is through mythic concretism: the various planes of existence are portrayed as actual regions of space.  This is the case of traditional mythology such as Jain, Buddhist, Nordic, and Dantean (Divine Comedy) cosmology for example, and even I suppose in esoteric systems like Kabbalah and Theosophy.  But this approach, which I do use, also lacks a certain subtlety.   So I’m also striving for something more, though I’m not yet sure what for it will take.  Anyway, we’ll see how things turn out.

The Zoneship Alcione – work in progress

The Zoneship Alcione - work in progress.
The Zoneship Alcione – work in progress.

Here’s the newest version of the Zoneship Alcione.  The term “zoneship” is used, rather than the equally appropriate “starship” or spaceship, because the Freehauler Alcioneverse assumes that reality consists of zones, which can be traversed in order to attain FTL (faster than light, hyperjump, whatever) travel.  Most “space opera” science fiction uses the basic plot device of some sort of magic FTL drive to span the vast distances between the stars, but the rest of the story is pretty mundane, basically like society and politics on Earth today, or like a technological space-based version of a High Fantasy Earth, but with spaceships instead of naval vessels or freighters, planets instead of cities or countries, and alien races instead of cultures or nationalities.  There’s nothing wrong with that, inasmuch as science fiction is often more about the present than the future (attempts to predict the future generally end disastrously anyway, e.g. we have smart phones but not moon bases).  But I other worldsthought it would be interesting to incorporate different zones of existence into the story and worldbuilding.

So rather than normal/realspace propulsion and FTL (as is standard e.g. impulse drive and warp drive in Star Trek), I’ve got  a magic/handwavium realspace reactionless drive propulsion (because there’s no way to realistically move a twenty million ton starship otherwise) using negative matter/mass/energy/unobtanium, plus hyperspace rotation, plus at least two distinct FTL propulsions, one for paraspace and one for aetherspace.

The spikey mace thingie was originally going to be used to generate the huge amounts of energies needed for the reactionless drive field, and based on Ken Burnside’s torchship design in his Attack Vector Tactical space-based wargame, but when I looked at the illustrations again I noticed they were an open grid.  Since I like the medieval feel of this mace thingie, I decided to go the full science fantasy Art Major School of Physics and make it into a propulsion unit for paraspace.

Originally I was going to have paraspace propulsion based UFO disks, a sort of large spinning thing, perhaps attached to the diametric drive ring, or else separate and either at the middle or the end of the ship, but no matter how I drew it, it just didn’t look right.

It seems like UFOs and space opera spaceships are such incompatible tropes that any attempt at synthesis looks ridiculous (well, there’s Star Trek spaceships (saucer on a rocket) and Stargate Atlantis mythology, so maybe it’s not).  This is because UFOs are a paranormal, interdimensional, ultraterrestrial phenomenon, possibly some sort of plasma or magnetic field effect when temporarily materialised in realspace, whereas spaceships are a mythological, symbolic representation of modern day things like giant machinery.  As I’ve elsewhere explained (on Omni), space opera is just the modern form of epic mythology, and vice-versa.  It’s meant to describe this world, only in epic poetic form.  Whereas UFOs simply don’t fit with our concept of reason or how the universe works, and in any attempt to explain them rationally is likely to drive you crazy.  See for example the works of French astronomer and ufologist Jaques Vallee, specifically Passport to Magonia and Messengers of Deception.

In a sense, but having crazy paraspace universes co-existing with realspace, not just metaphysically but physically, so a ship can transit between the two, I’m “cheating”, in that I’m describing the universe how I’d like it to be in a story, as opposed to how it really is (it may well be that interstellar space is simply too vast to be traversed by physical technology, and this is the reason for Fermi’s Question: where are they?

But that is what story telling is, not so much cheating as creating or rather re-interpreting myths.  Other zones of existence then become simply another type of otherworldplace, like other planets, parallel universes, alternate timelines, dreamscapes, and the rest.  What makes science fiction, and especially space opera, so cool is precisely its settings and hence the ease it can be used to tell myths, because all myths and archetypes by their very nature require some sort of numinous, imaginal setting; something that is not of this boring, mundane, quotidian world.  People who love scifi and fantasy, whether reading it or writing or drawing or otherwise creating it, are those who love and need and crave these  other worlds, as an alternative to their everyday stifling boring world.

Which brings us back to the above design.  Here I’m incorporating ideas and deckplans I drew up 18 months ago.  Since this version of the Alcione is much larger than the original, there’s heaps more space, so the deckplans will only include a small part of the ship.

Originally the Alcione was going to be unarmed, to get away from the repetitive cliches of a lot of military scifi , but I felt she needed some sort  of weapons, though I’m thinking of toning it down a bit  Make the battle module smaller, or simply a part of another module.  That’s why this is called a work in progress.



The Alcione modelled with Blender

Freehauler Alcione, initial Blender version

Freehauler Alcione, my initial Blender version

Above is my first posted image of the Freehauler Alcione, as modelled in Blender.

When I started, I found Blender extremely bewildering.  It was a huge learning curve .   My original rough attempt at modelling the Alcione was simply a series of shapes put together to represent the general outline.

After about a month of study, I started really getting the hang of it, focusing mainly on the 3d modelling side.  Without a high-end graphics card it’s not really worth my while doing a lot of rendering and attempting movies and so on, assuming I even had the time to put into the latter.

While now much more familiar with the interface, I still found 3d modelling tedious because of all the details.

There’s a number of youtube tutorials and guides that show you step by step how to model your own spaceship, beginning with a simple cube, although some familiarity with the Blenber interface and shortcut keys is required.

With a  few exceptions, all these blender spaceships, while beautifully built, follow the traditional design of a wet navy ship in space; bilateral symmetry (distinct up and down and front and rear) and small (equivalent to jet) engines.

Here the confluence of the design team George Lucas hired for Star Wars, and science fiction writers using the Space is an Ocean trope, have created the naval analogy that is now de rigour for space opera covers, self-published military SF, and nerd ship art nowadays.

The breakthrough idea with my modelling the Alcione was to download creative commons licensed models of spaceships in Blender format, and copy and paste parts of them to wrap around my rough outline, along with giving acknowledgements.  After downloading several scifi spaceships it became evident this wouldn’t work; either they were too hard to convert to the scale and symmetry I was after, or they were too detailed (which normally would be perfect, but it means they take too long to render).

In the end, the only one that turned out to be appropriate is an awesome free for use collection of hulls, parts, and greebles, called “Shipyard” posted on Blend Swap. Although I still had to modify many of them to get the extra axis of symmetry I’m after, though I couldn’t resist sticking a big gun on the central hull section!

As this is 3d software so I can show the Alcione in any position, but in comparison with earlier images I’m posting it in right side view. This is very much a work in progress; I still have to add things like airlocks, hanger doors etc.  As I develop this design more, I’ll post further updates.

On a scale of realism (if you’ve followed my realism in science fiction gradations; latest version here) this would be about a 6 out of 10; if Star Wars is 2, Kim Stanley Robinson is 9, and the postulated Alcubierre FTL drive is, I dunno, 7 1/2. I’m deliberately not writing hard SF though because I want to go crazy with my imagination. I also don’t use the Alcubierre Drive because (a) it’s still problematic at FTL speeds (tho works just fine as a STL (slower than light) reactionless drive), and more importantly (b) my story and worldbuilding combines FTL and Theosophical planes of existence.

There’s a lot in this new design that’s tied up with my worldbuilding. I’ve replaced my previous ideas of Torchship (not viable at more than 5,000 tons or so) and NegMass drive (really awesome cool idea but technological problems I expect would be insurmountable) in favour of good old handwavium, the fallback of every serious science fiction writer.

To briefly explain this vessel, I assume a new type of reactionless drive is discovered which uses negative energy like the Alcubierre drive, but doesn’t have such a gigantic power requirement (although still pretty intimidating). In my universe I assume economics of scale make it practical to create gigantic reactionless drive ships. The only reason is because I love giant spaceships, but even so they still have to be justified in-universe.

The spiky ball in the illustration is the fusion generator for the (slower than light, realspace) reactionless drive field, the spikes are heat radiators (this particular design is inspired by Ken Burnside of Ad Astra Games, whose spaceships designs (see this page for 3D modelled screenshots) are as realistic as you can get, and whose Attack Vector Tactical, is perhaps the only hard science space combat games ever written.  David Pulver’s GURPS Transhuman Space also features equally rigorous and realistic space combat, but the emphasis is still on roleplaying rather than specific wargaming..  Mr Burnside’s radiators are obviously a more realistic design because they are an open framework; an enclosed sphere would instantly vaporise.   (hence the need for copious amounts of unobtanium and handwavium in even the most realistic scifi universes).  In my less realistic universe, this chamber only functions for a very brief period, which is luckily enough to generate the reactionless field

Surrounding the super fusion reactor it is the quasi Alcubierre ring,  (see also the cute Kerbal Space Program version); which, thanks to the magic of handwavium and the eloquence of technobabble, is able to create a partial warp in spacetime by using negative energy to generate a repulsive gravity field.  I can’t call this the Alcubierre field, because it’s not that; I’ll have to invent a fancy name for it.  Diametric Field, whatever.  Essentially, as a plot device, I wanted something like Negative Mass but without the need to generate it and exactly balance it with the positive mass.

Behind this are the scifi gizmos which generate the actual reactionless field.  Actually these greebles are too ordinary, this part should be more crazy looking. I’ll probably have to completely model my own design here.

For those wondering what “greebles” are, they’re the irregular bits of tech that have been stuck on the outside of spaceships ever since George Lucas’s Star Wars.  Presumably, greebles must serve a purpose, but the purpose is never defined, it’s simply part of the huge complexity of a starship, which, paradoxically in most space operas can easily be managed by a crew of only about six or seven, including a  single engineer.  I read somewhere an idea that adventure space opera is inspired by WWII bomber crews as by the tramp steamship, as they have the same number and similar roles, but infuriatingly haven’t been able to find the reference.  Most likely this is just convergence, but the parallels are still intriguing,.

I was even considering a totally smooth version of Alcione, but when I sketched it, it didn’t look right.  So I’ve stuck with greebles.

Returning to the design here, in front of the reactionless drive complex, the icosohedron module contains the unobtanium gyroscopes that rotate the ship into the hyper-spacial dimensions where FTL is possible. I’ll need to stick a fusion reactor somewhere in front or behind this to power the rest of the ship’s systems; this is different to super fusion generator in the spiky sphere and will have normal thermal radiators.

Then the middle assembly with engineering, and more modules, including the machine shop. Actually there’s plenty of space for the fusion reactor which will be pretty small, say 500 megawatts I’d guess, which being enough to power a small city, should be more than enough for any lasers and gauss guns. Then in front of that cargo, biospherics, the crew quarters and bridge. Then there’s the thermal radiators (which being edge on aren’t clearly visible) and the crew and habitation modules.

The structure at the front marks a divergence from the earlier Alcione designs. This has aetherspace thingies and chionic generator at the front. The idea is it’s part mechanical, part organic. The long branch like things which carry the ship forward in aetherspace. The original inspiration was plankton, such as echinoderm and crustacea larva. I was actually at one point thinking of revising the Alcione as a bioship, so it looked like a giant organic plankton creature (and the comparison between microscopic plankton and floating in space, while not scientifically accurate,  is still quite evocative and mythopoetic) , but the idea of a giant hunk of metal and fullerene is just too appealing, even if it does have organic components

The overall length of the Alcione in-universe is a bit over a mile, say 1.8 kilometers from tip to tip. To give a sense of scale, the large ring is about 600 meters in diameter.

After this, my next Blender project will be a portrait of Freedai, the protagonist of my first novel (in the currently rearranged series), who later (after some dramas and adventures) finds herself as a junior crewmember on the Alcione.

Writing, blender, and more

A lighthugger from Alastair Reynolds Revelation Space Universe. Artist unknown. Downloaded from Alastair Reynolds com

Since I’ve last posted, a lot has happened.  I’m now living in the countryside for one, and tranquility has been great for my creativity.

My setting now includes five major characters: Triumvar Jonas Lothfield, the captain (of sorts) of the eponymous starship and one of the protagonists  of  Freehauler Alcione, teenage Kamren Sortnoi-Valentinon and her friend Marcel Landin, the two protagonists of Mechacross, who are gifted a mech by a rogue military entertainment complex AI, Marcel’s older brother Perryn Landin, the main protagonist of The Universe is full of starving xenopaleontologists, and mechaneer and spacer girl Freedai Reynofar, who joins the crew of the Alcione.

The Alcione herself has had a makeover.  I wasn’t really satisfied with the old modular design.  It was too much a compromise between high realism hard SF (an actual hardSF spaceship would certainly be modular, but it would be much smaller, say 100 meters, and use some sort of torch or nuclear pulse propulsion (such as feature on the excellent Atomic Rockets site), and the more fantastical space fantasy type universes of Star Wars and Warhammer 40k.

I decided to scrap the modular design and make the ship a single integral vessel.   I wanted to keep the vertical skyscraper/tower design, but add various organic elements, and also mechanistic greebles (bits and pieces on the outside of a ship hull that have been an essential part of the “giant starship aesthetic” for 40 years, since Star Wars revolutionised the way space opera should look).

Because I wanted a huge ship, I also kept the reactionless drive, but reluctantly decided to get rid of the negative matter propulsion idea.  Despite its hard science credentials and originality it felt too fidgety from a practical tech reason (the amount of negmass would constantly have to be modulated to exactly counterbalance the ship’s positive mass) and, more important, a great big ball of negative matter chasing the ship would be counter-intuitive and not accommodating to space opera aesthetic

One thing I definitely wanted to retain was the tower design.  The whole artificial gravity perpendicular to the direction of motion thing is so contrived and derived on the need to rationalise human actors in a 1 gee environment (only Gravity breaks the mould) combined with the naval ships in space trope of Star Trek and Star Wars that it makes absolutely no sense in a worldbuilding and storytelling context.

The result is a vertical spaceship a mile high, in which gravity is generated by acceleration provided by a handwavium drive, and when the drive is switched off, e.g. when the ship is docked, the situation is one of weightlessness.

The nearest I can think of to this configuration is Alastair Reynolds Lighthugger, and of the artwork available, the one at the top of this page, with its massive construction and menacing sense of power is the closest to how I currently envisage the Freehauler Alcione (part freighter, part privateer), although it would likely present a somewhat less intimidating appearance, if only to encourage trade.

Indeed, my own worldbuilding could probably be described as Revelation Space meets Warhammer 40k Rogue Trader, with some  Heinlein Citizen of the Galaxy thrown in for good measure

As I want to create my own scifi representations, I’ve started learning Blender (a popular open source and free 3d modelling package), with an eye to making a 3d model of the Alcione, although I may have purchase a powerful graphics card, because of the computational demands on rendering an image.

It’s turned out to be a steep learning curve indeed, as Blender isn’t the most user friendly of programs (though for all I know the professional packages that cost thousands of dollars are just as hardlearn).

Originally I was going to attempt the interior as well, but with the complexity and time requirements it looks like an exterior view will be enough for now.



General update

I haven’t posted anything in a while, because I’ve been working on the deck plan of the Alcione.  Then I started writing a start featuring the crew of the Alcione.  Now I’m going back to the previous story.  I’ve scrapped the idea of novellas and will have a full length story

My current writing plan is this:

Book 1, Mech Cross, featuring the two teenage protagonists Kam and Shymarc.   Madverts will be part 1  (as well as writing the book i need to draw a plan of the mech)

Book 2, Spacefreighter Alcione.  Introduces the Alcione and its  crew (also will have deck plans).  Freedai joins the Alcione.

Book 3. Kam and Shymarc join the Alcione, along with a corporate AI that’s been helping them but has its own agenda

Various further developments and  sequels.

The whole story will be one series, although each novel will be self-contained



Freehauler Alcione, rough diagnostic sketch

Freehauler Alcione, rough diagnostic sketch.
Freehauler Alcione, rough diagnostic sketch. Concept and illustration by M Alan Kazlev (c) 2015

Here’s a revised sketch of the eponymous space freighter Alcione. Overall length about 1300 meters, dry mass about 400,000 tonnes. From left to right, meteor shield, lasers, forward reactor and radiators, forward manoeuvering rockets, forward hyperjump node and paraspace units, small freight containers, habitation rings with radiators, shuttle hanger and shuttle fuel depot, large freight containers (15 & 20 meters each), hyperspace, paraspace, negmatter drives (multiple FTL modes), short range fusion thrusters, reactors, and reaction mass, rear manoeuvering rockets, main reactors, large tanks for fusionable material, main radiators, blast shield, handwavium-enhanced variable thrust orion/daedalus type drive

Scale of Science Fiction Hardness

2001 A Space Odyssey, directed by Stanley Kubrick. MGM 1968
Image from 2001 A Space Odyssey, directed by Stanley Kubrick. MGM 1968

(Update (April 2017): I’ve published a new version of this scale on Omni)

Just as there’s a Mohs Scale of Hardness in mineralogy, so there’s a metaphorical Scale of hardness in Science Fiction, where “hardness” refers to Hard Science Fiction (Hard SF for short), the genre that has the greatest technological plausibility and scientific realism. (Hard SF on its own also tends to dryness and socio-cultural and character shallowness, but that’s another story)

For more on Hard SF, here’s the wikipedia page, here’s a website devoted solely to the topic, here’s a list of books considered Hard SF (as always, there’s a lot of subjective assessment, unlike minerology or chemistry where there’s easy empirical tests). Little in the way of Hard SF movies, one could list 2001, Gravity, and The Martian.

The following scale of realism combines and updates my earlier scale (written years ago and now out of date) with the excellent TV Tropes Mohs Scale of Science Fiction Hardness (which I have quoted from at length). Update: See also other comments and versions by Mike Brotherton, and Howard Miller, Juliette Harrisson’s Discworld Mohs Scale of Fantasy Hardness Parts One and Two, and J.P. Flarity’s Mohs Scale of Fiction Weirdness.

Regarding the following, four things should be pointed out.

First, the opposite of Hard SF is not Soft SF. Soft Science Fiction refers to science fiction that explores themes and possibilities based on the social or “soft” sciences such as psychology, anthropology and sociology. This is a perfectly respectable field of science fiction, and indeed Hard SF stores may be decidedly lacking in the social realism stakes, just as social science fiction may be lacking in the astronomy and rocket science stakes.

Second, even when science marches on, a work still remains hard science. To quote Wikipedia: “Later discoveries do not necessarily invalidate the label of hard SF… Arthur C. Clarke’s 1961 novel A Fall of Moondust (is still) hard SF,…even though a crucial plot element, the existence of deep pockets of ‘moondust’ in lunar craters, is now known to be incorrect.” HG Wells War of the Worlds for example was hard science by the standards of its day. Nevertheless, the future never turns out as we imagine or predict it, so “Future Rust” is common in older books, and even more recent technothrillers.

And third, no story or worldbuilding is uniform in its realism or lack thereof. A scenario may include ultra hard SF (9 out of 10) ships for interplanetary travel but give them hyperjump capability for FTL (6 out of 10).

And finally, all science fiction is still fiction.  The science in science fiction enhances the fiction, but generally less so the reverse, although there are exceptions, e.g. many scientists and astronauts who work at NASA grew up watching Star Trek.  But for a writer it is less what is absolutely, objectively, real, and more what serves the story.

Here then is my current provisional list, from most to least realistic, where 10 is the real world, and 0 is total cartoon nonsense, with especially emphasis on spaceships and space opera:
(Update: have included decimal-tenths just for the heck of it. So n.6 is more speculative and n.5. more realistic)

10. The real world. Science is explained, no handwavium. Also, Non-Fiction. As TV Tropes puts it: “The Apollo Program, World War II, and Woodstock fall in this class.”

9.6. to 9.9 Technothrillers and Futurology. Technothrillers take place only a few years in the future, with only a few plausible near future tech projections. This category overlaps with Futurology which includes, as explained in TV Tropes “stories which function almost like a prediction of the future, extrapolating from current technology but do not assume or invent any important new technologies or discoveries.”  Quite likely some of the more rigorously and scientifically realistic of the ultra hard space exploration categories of the following category actually go here.

8.6.to 9.5 Ultra Hard Science – only extrapolation from known laws of physics. In TV Tropes this is called Speculative Science. In contrast to the previous categories, the science is “genuine speculative science or engineering, and the goal of the author to make as few errors with respect to known fact as possible.” Interplanetary vessels have milligee thrust. Rockets have to choose between high thrust low isp, or high isp low thrust, you can’t have both. Adherence to thermodynamics, real science. No torchships. Preferably no aliens, if there are, they are limited to the same physics we are, and also must justify in terms of Great Silence (Fermi Paradox). Greg Egan, Kim Stanly Robinson Mars Trilogy, Arthur C Clarke 2001, Asimov The Gods Themselves, GURPS Transhuman Space, Andy Weir’s The Martian, the first two books in Robert L. Forward’s Rocheworld series and Robert A. Heinlein’s The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress fall in this class. 9.5 is the most realistic, with only plausible near future tech projections.  For some excellent examples on Ultra Hard SF ships in fact and fiction, with authentic rocket science, see Winchell Chung’s Atomic Rockets website, a resource that I simply cannot recommend highly enough.  For tabletop spaceship combat game, see Ken Burnside’s Attack Vector: Tactical (although this also has less realistic FTL as a background explanation for why the battles are not in our solar system). John Lumpkin’s Human Reach series features similarily authentic spaceships, although the setting includes wormholes which pertain to one or two realism grades down.

7.6.to 8.5. Very Hard Science – extrapolation from laws of physics, with minimum handwavium for story purposes. Basic torchships (high thrust high isp), interplanetary vessels average around 0.3 gee thrust or less. Adherence as much as possible to thermodynamics and real science. Interstellar, non-relativistic travel. In TV Tropes this is called “One Small Fib”, “stories that include only a single counterfactual device (often FTL Travel), but for which the device is not a major element of the plot.” Some alien or posthuman handwavium / unobtanium allowed. Big Dumb Object without handwavium. Preferably have an explanation for Great Silence (Fermi Paradox). Arthur C Clarke Rama novels, Gregory Benford, Bruce Stirling Schizmatrix, Stephen Baxter. Many Hal Clement novels (e.g. Mission Of Gravity, Close to Critical) and Freefall belong here.

6.6 to 7.5. Hard Science – extrapolition from laws of physics, plus some handwavium for storytelling purposes. In TV Tropes this is called “One Big Lie”. “Authors invent one, or, at most, a very few, counterfactual physical laws and writes a story that explores the implications of these principles.” Tech otherwise consistent and explained. Interplanetary vessels average around 1 gee. Relativistic travel. May have reactionless drive but must be realistic, say exotic matter or singularity or other unusual tech. FTL only if plausibly explained, otherwise relativistic travel. Includes thermodynamics, rocket science, etc. Aliens with realistic-seeming biology, non-humanoid only. Token explanation of Great Silence (Fermi Paradox). Most works in Alan Dean Foster’s Humanx Commonwealth series, the Ad Astra board games and Robert A. Heinlein’s Farnham’s Freehold fall in this category, as do many of Vernor Vinge’s books. Also Haldeman Forever War, Niven Mote in God’s Eye, Greg Bear various stories, Alastair Reynolds Revelation Space/Galactic North Universe, Posthuman Studios Eclipse Phase (everything else very hard, say 9 out of 10, but “sleeving” consciousness with its associated cartesian ghost in the machine implications, also alien wormholes that are pure unexplainedium). John C. Wright’s The Golden Age probably would go here as well (say 6.7)

5.6.to 6.5. Firm Science – with handwavium and unobtanium, but these reasonably explained in the context of the setting. Torchships rather than reactionless drive, but absurd acceleration given energy allowance (fudging the figures). Token thermodynamics only. FTL with reasonably plausible explanation. Ignores Fermi Paradox. Niven’s Known Universe, Peter Hamilton, James Corey’s The Expanse, a lot of space opera in general.

4.6.to 5.5 Physics Plus (to use the TV Tropes moniker). “Stories in this class once again have multiple forms of Applied Phlebotinum, but in contrast to the prior class, the author aims to justify these creations with real and invented natural laws — and these creations and others from the same laws will turn up again and again in new contexts.” Some Science. Reactionless drive ships easily pull dozens or hundreds of gees. Doesn’t explain why relativistic reactionless drive ships aren’t used as doomsday devices to annihilate whole planets, or as perpetual motion free energy devices. Differs from Token Science in that there is still some rocket science. Heinlein Citizen of the Galaxy, Starship Troopers, Brin Uplift universe, Iain M Banks Cultureverse, Schlock Mercenary, David Weber’s Honor Harrington series, David Brin’s Uplift series, and Battlestar Galactica (2003) fall in this class.

3.6.to 4.5 Token Science. Some real science, but only because this is “science fiction”; the science is there only for storytelling purposes rather than realism. For the most part handwavium and unobtanium with little or no explanation. Ignores thermodynamics (no radiator fins). Reactionless drive, agrav, forcefields, tractor beams, stealth, some aliens look like humans, others very different. FTL with arbitrary explanation.  Consistency in worldbuilding, in contrast to the Pure Technobabble category.  Frank Herbert’s Dune, Dan Simmons Hyperion Cantos, Firefly/Serenity, maybe Eve on line.  Babylon 5 may belong here, although humanoid aliens belong to the next category down, and conversely fighters use vector thrust and larger ships generate artificial gravity by centrifugal spin, which put them in at least the 6 or 7 out of 10 category.

2.6 to 3.5. Technobabble and Handwavium. Differs from Science Fiction In Name Only in that at least there is some attempt, no matter how poor, at a rational explanation. Or in otherwords, to quote TV Tropes: “Phlebotinum is dealt with in a fairly consistent fashion despite its lack of correspondence with reality and, in-world, is considered to lie within the realm of scientific inquiry.” So for example the Enterprise cannot land on a planet, showing that large ships are outer space only. Even so, this is still full of sillytech and inconsistent worldbuilding. Because of handwavium and phlebotinum, anything can be explained. You can have ST style matter transportation because it is assumed all the technical problems were solved, most aliens are humanoid, many identical in appearance to H. sapiens, human and aliens can interbreed, and humans live in similar environments can eat same food etc, because it is assumed there were humanoid progenitors. At the same time, there is serious worldbuilding incompatabilities e.g. if you have ST matter teleportation otherwise you could easily drop a nuke in an enemies lap, have immortality, limitless clones, etc. But it is never explained why this never happens. Star Trek is the classic example, but also included here is E. E. “Doc” Smith’s Lensman series, Neon Genesis Evangelion, Warhammer 40k, the Star Wars Expanded Universe novels (now called “legends” and considered non-canon) which at least make some attempt at explanation over the totally unrealistic canonical movies, Cowboy Bebop, and StarCraft.

1.6 to 2.5 Artistic License. Although unambiguously considered to be “Science Fiction”, there is no actual science to be found. Rather, the story follows what looks good artistically from our contemporary early 21st century perspective. Ships wheel and bank in a vacuum, blaster bolts move slower than tracer rounds. Battles directly mapped from WW II naval engagements. Lantern-jawed heroes and busty maidens, or scary monsters, or both. More realistic than comic book superheros only in that it’s assumed you need a spaceship to travel through space, and there is an attempt at a consistent plot. Star Wars, Guardians of the Galaxy, Dr Who, Red Dwarf, Farscape, Space Battleship Yamoto. Some Star Trek movies, e.g. Star Trek out of Darkness has worldbuilding inconsistencies  that are if anything even worse, e.g. Transwarp allows teleporting across interstellar distances, but it is never explained why people still use spaceships

0.1. to 1.5 Comic books. Only token attempts at explanations – Marvel and DC superheros, e.g. superpowers because from a planet with a red sun, Genetic mutation, or Peter Parker bitten by a radioactive spider. Sometimes not only that, so that, to quote TV Tropes: “Green Rocks gain New Powers as the Plot Demands”. The DC and Marvel superhero universes belong here, along with Futurama, manga and anime like Dragonball Z and Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann, and humorous aspects of The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy.

0. Cartoons that are not meant to make sense, e.g. Marvin the Martian